Center for Freshwater Ecology

Research Group of Aquatic Macrophyte Ecology


PI: Prof. CAO Te, PhD

Members:  NI Leyi; ZHANG Xiaolin; CHOU Qingchuan

Contact Us:  

Tel: +86-27-68780620 

General Introduction:   

The Research Group of Aquatic Macrophyte Ecology takes aquatic plants as the core research object. Their research interests mainly focus on macrophyte population and community ecology, community succession, physiological ecology, evolutionary ecology, reproductive ecology, eco-stoichiometry, ecological functional traits, aquatic plant restoration, adaptive evolution and freshwater ecosystem related aspects.  

Current Research Interests:   

* Response and adaptability strategies of aquatic plants to the water environment  

* Construction mechanism of aquatic plant communities 

* Theoretical basis and technical development of aquatic plant restoration  

* Practice of aquatic plant restoration in opening water bodies 

Recent Publications:   

Cao, T., L. Y. Ni, and P. Xie. 2004. Acute biochemical responses of a submersed macrophyte, Potamogeton crispus L., to high ammonium in an aquarium experiment. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 19:279-284. c104 

Cao, T., P. Xie, L. Ni, A. Wu, M. Zhang, S. Wu, and A. J. P. Smolders. 2007. The role of NH4+ toxicity in the decline of the submersed macrophyte Vallisneria natans in lakes of the Yangtze River basin, China. Marine and Freshwater Research 58:581-587. c99 

Li, H., T. Cao, and L. Ni. 2007. Effects of ammonium on growth, nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolism of Potamogeton maackianus A. Benn. Fundamental and Applied Limnology 170:141-148. c24 

Xu, J., P. Xie, M. Zhang, Q. Zhou, L. Zhang, Z. Wen, and T. Cao. 2007. Icefish (Salangidae) as an indicator of anthropogenic pollution in freshwater systems using nitrogen isotope analysis. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 79:323-326. 

Cao, T., P. Xie, L. Ni, A. Wu, M. Zhang, and J. Xu. 2008. Relationships among the contents of total phenolics, soluble carbohydrate, and free amino acids of 15 aquatic macrophytes. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 23:291-296. c8 

Cao, T., P. Xie, Z. Li, L. Ni, M. Zhang, and J. Xu. 2009a. Physiological Stress of High NH (4) (+) Concentration in Water Column on the Submersed Macrophyte Vallisneria Natans L. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 82:296-299. c44 

Cao, T., P. Xie, L. Ni, M. Zhang, and J. Xu. 2009b. Carbon and nitrogen metabolism of an eutrophication tolerative macrophyte, Potamogeton crispus, under NH4+ stress and low light availability. Environmental and Experimental Botany 66:74-78. 61 

Qiong, Z., X. Ping, X. Jun, Z.-X. Ke, L.-G. Guo, and C. Te. 2009. Seasonal variations in stable isotope ratios of two biomanipulation fishes and seston in a large pen culture in hypereutrophic Meiliang Bay, Lake Taihu. Ecological Engineering 35:1603-1609. 

Wu, A.-P., T. Cao, S.-K. Wu, L.-Y. Ni, and P. Xie. 2009. Trends of Superoxide Dismutase and Soluble Protein of Aquatic Plants in Lakes of Different Trophic Levels in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River, China. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 51:414-422. C2 

Li, Z., J. Xu, T. Cao, L. Ni, and P. Xie. 2010. Adaptive Responses of a Floating-Leaved Macrophyte, Nymphoides peltata, to a Terrestrial Habitat. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 25:481-486. C9 

Zhang, M., T. Cao, L. Ni, P. Xie, and Z. Li. 2010. Carbon, nitrogen and antioxidant enzyme responses of Potamogeton crispus to both low light and high nutrient stresses. Environmental and Experimental Botany 68:44-50. C83 

Cao, T., L. Ni, P. Xie, J. Xu, and M. Zhang. 2011. Effects of moderate ammonium enrichment on three submersed macrophytes under contrasting light availability. Freshwater Biology 56:1620-1629. c77 

Li, Z., S. Wang, L. Kong, M. Zhang, T. Cao, and J. Xu. 2011a. Suppressed growth of the submersed macrophyte Vallisneria natans in a non-rooted suspended state. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 26:423-428. C1 

Li, Z., M. Zhang, T. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Ni, P. Xie, and J. Xu. 2011b. Variation in stable isotope signatures of the submersed macrophyte Vallisneria natans collected from several shallow lakes in China. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 26:429-433. C4 

Zhang, M., T. Cao*, L. Ni*, P. Xie, G. Zhu, A. Zhong, J. Xu, and H. Fu. 2011a. Light-dependent phosphate uptake of a submersed macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum L. Aquatic Botany 94:151-157. c17 

Zhang, M., Z. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Liu, L. Ni*, T. Cao*, and P. Xie. 2011b. Ammonium, microcystins, and hypoxia of blooms in eutrophic water cause oxidative stress and C-N imbalance in submersed and floating-leaved aquatic plants in Lake Taihu, China. Chemosphere 82:329-339. c44 

Zhou, Q., P. Xie, J. Xu, X. Liang, J. Qin, T. Cao, and F. Chen. 2011. Seasonal Trophic Shift of Littoral Consumers in Eutrophic Lake Taihu (China) Revealed by a Two-Source Mixing Model. TheScientificWorldJournal 11:1442-1454. 

Fu, H., G. Yuan, T. Cao*, L. Ni*, W. Li, and G. Zhu. 2012a. Relationships between relative growth rate and its components across 11 submersed macrophytes. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 27:471-480. c6 

Fu, H., G. Yuan, T. Cao*, L. Ni*, M. Zhang, and S. Wang. 2012b. An alternative mechanism for shade adaptation: implication of allometric responses of three submersed macrophytes to water depth. Ecological Research 27:1087-1094. c37 

Li, Z. Q., L. Y. Kong, L. F. Yang, M. Zhang, T. Cao, J. Xu, Z. X. Wang, and Y. Lei. 2012. Effect of substrate grain size on the growth and morphology of the submersed macrophyte Vallisneria natans L. Limnologica 42:81-85. C11 

Zhu, G., M. Zhang, T. Cao*, L. Ni*, A. Zhong, and H. Fu. 2012b. Effects of sediment type on stem mechancal properties of the submersed macrophyte Hydrilla verticillata (L.F.) Royle.. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 21:468-474. c11 

Fu, H., G. Yuan, J. Zhong, T. Cao, L. Ni, and P. Xie. 2013. Environmental and Ontogenetic Effects on Intraspecific Trait Variation of a Macrophyte Species across Five Ecological Scales. Plos One 8. C23 

Li, W., T. Cao*, L. Ni, X. Zhang, G. Zhu, and P. Xie. 2013. Effects of water depth on carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry of five submersed macrophytes in an in situ experiment. Ecological Engineering 61:358-365. c51 

Yuan, G., T. Cao*, H. Fu, L. Ni, X. Zhang, W. Li, X. Song, P. Xie, and E. Jeppesen. 2013. Linking carbon and nitrogen metabolism to depth distribution of submersed macrophytes using high ammonium dosing tests and a lake survey. Freshwater Biology 58:2532-2540. c28 

Zhong, A., T. Cao*, L. Ni*, and P. Xie. 2013. Growth and membrane permeability of two submersed macrophytes in response to ammonium enrichment. Aquatic Biology 19:55-64. c7 

Fu, H., J. Zhong*, G. Yuan, L. Ni, P. Xie, and T. Cao*. 2014. Functional traits composition predict macrophytes community productivity along a water depth gradient in a freshwater lake. Ecology and Evolution 4:1516-1523. c26 

Zhu, G., T. Cao*, M. Zhang, L. Ni*, and X. Zhang. 2014. Fertile sediment and ammonium enrichment decrease the growth and biomechanical strength of submersed macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum in an experiment. Hydrobiologia 727:109-120. c20 

Hui Fu, Jiayou Zhong, Guixiang Yuan, Ping Xie, Longgen Guo, Xiaolin Zhang, Jun Xu, Zhongqiang Li, Wei Li, Te Cao*, Leyi Ni. 2014. Trait-based community assembly of aquatic macrophytes along a water depth gradient in a freshwater lake; Freshwater Biology, 59: 2462-2471. c25 

Guixiang Yuan, Hui Fu, Jiayou Zhong, Te Cao, Leyi Ni, Tianshun Zhua, Wei Li, XinSong. 2015. Nitrogen/carbon metabolism in response to NH4+ pulse for two submersed macrophytes. Aquatic Botany, 121: 76–82. c8 

Liang He, Te Cao*, Xu Hu , Huan Zhang , Xiaolin Zhang, Leyi Ni*, Ping Xie. 2015. Effects of NH4+ and K+ enrichments on carbon and nitrogen metabolism, life history and asexual reproduction of Vallisneria natans L. in aquarium experiments. Journal of Freshwater Ecology,  30 (3): 391 – 406, c1 

Hui Fu, Jiayou Zhong*, Guixiang Yuan, Chunjing Guo, Qian Lou,Wei Zhang, Jun Xu, Leyi Ni, Ping Xie, Te Cao*. 2015 Predicting Changes in Macrophyte Community Structure from Functional Traits in a Freshwater Lake: A Test of Maximum Entropy Model. PLOS ONE, 10(7): e0131630. c7 

Liang He, Tianshun Zhu, Te Cao* , Wei Li, Meng Zhang, Xiaoling Zhang, Leyi Ni*, Ping Xie. 2015. Characteristics of early eutrophication encoded in submerged vegetation beyond water quality: a case study in Lake Erhai, China. Environmental Earth Science, 4 (5): 3701-3708. c14 

Guorong Zhu, Te Cao*, Meng Zhang, Leyi Ni*. 2015. Associations between the morphology and biomechanical properties of submerged macrophytes: implications for survival and ecosystem distribution in Erhai Lake. Environmental Earth Science, 74 (5):  3907-3916. c6 

Wei Li, Te Cao*, Leyi Ni*, Xiaolin Zhang, Guorong Zhu, Hui Fu, Xin Song, Ping Xie. 2015. Size-dependent C, N and P stoichiometry of three submersed macrophytes along water depth gradients. Environmental Earth Science, 74 (5): 3733-3738. c12 

Guixiang Yuan, Hui Fu, Jiayou Zhong, Qian Lou, Leyi Ni, Te Cao*. 2016. Growth and C/N metabolism of three submersed macrophytes in response to water depths. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 122: 94–99. c17 

Tianshun Zhu, Te Cao, Leyi Ni, Liang He, Chunlong Yi, Changbo Yuan,Ping Xie. 2016. Improvement of water quality by sediment capping and re-vegetationwith Vallisneria natans L.: A short-term investigation using an in situenclosure experiment in Lake Erhai, China. Ecological Engineering 86: 113–119. c10 

Jianfeng Chen, Te Cao, Xiaolin Zhang, Yilong Xi, Leyi Ni, Erik Jeppesen. 2016. Differential photosynthetic and morphological adaptations to low light affect depth distribution of two submersed macrophytes in lakes. Scientific Report, 6: 34028. c19 

Wei Li, Jiayou Zhong, Guixiang Yuan, Hui Fu, Leyi Ni, Ping Xie, Houbao Fan, Te Cao*. 2017. Stoichiometric characteristics of four submersed macrophytes in three plateau lakes with contrasting trophic statuses. Ecological Engineering, 99 (2017) 265–270. c7 

Changbo Yuan, Tianshun Zhu, Te Cao, Yilong Xi, Xiaolin Zhang*, Leyi Ni. Antioxidant systems of aquatic macrophytes in three life forms: a case study in Lake Erhai, China. Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 

Guorong Zhu, Changbo Yuan, Guilan Di, Meng Zhangd, Leyi Ni, Te Cao, Rongting Fang, GongguoWu 2018. Morphological and biomechanical response to eutrophication and hydrodynamic stresses. Science of the Total Environment, 421-435.c5 

Jianfeng Che, Xu Hu, Te Cao, Xiaolin Zhang, Yilong Xi, Xinli Wen, Haojie Su, Wasana de Silva, Tianshun Zh, Leyi Ni, Ping Xie. 2017. Root-foraging behavior ensures the integrated growth of Vallisneria natans in heterogeneous sediments. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 24 (9): 8108-8119. C4 

Xin Tang, Xiaolin Zhang, Te Cao, Leyi Ni, Ping Xie. 2018. Reconstructing clear water state and submersed vegetation on behalf of repeated flocculation with modified soil in an in situ mesocosm experiment in Lake Taihu. Science of the Total Environment 625: 1433–1445. C2 

Liang He, Tianshun Zhu, Yao Wu, Wei Li, Huan Zhang, Xiaolin Zhang*, Te Cao*, Leyi Ni and Sabine Hilt. 2019. Littoral Slope, Water depth and alternative response strategies to light attenuation shape the distribution of submerged macrophytes in a mesotrophic Lake. Fronties in Plant Science, 10 (169): 1-9.  

Qingchuan Chou, Te Cao*, Leyi Ni, Ping Xie and Erik Jeppesen. 2019. Leaf soluble carbohydrates, free amino acids, sarch, total phenolics, carbon and nitrogen stoichiometry of 24 aquatic macrophyte species along climate gradients in China. Fronties in Plant Science, 10 (442): 1-11.  

Hao Wang, Zihao Wen, Zhonghai Zhang, Xiaolin Zhang, Hui Fu, Yu Cao, Leyi Ni, Te Cao, Kuanyi Li. 2020. Environmental vs. spatial drivers of submerged macrophyte community assembly in different seasons and water depths in a mesotrophic bay of Erhai Lake, China. Ecological Indicators, 117 (2020) 106696.  

Jianfeng Chen, Zugen Liu, Shuifusheng Xiao, Ruizhen Chen, Congqiang Luo, Tianshun Zhu, Te Cao, Leyi Ni, Ping Xie, Haojie Su, Meng Zhang. 2020. Effects of benthivorous fish disturbance on chlorophyll a contents in water and the growth of two submersed macrophytes with different growth forms under two light regimes. Science of the Total Environment, 704 (2020) 135269. 

Jianfeng Chen, Haojie Su, Gaoan Zhou, Yaoyao Dai, Jin Hu, Yihao Zhao, Zugen Liu, Te Cao, Leyi Ni, Meng Zhang, Ping Xie. 2020. Effects of benthivorous fish disturbance and snail herbivory on water quality and two submersed macrophytes. Science of the Total Environment, 713 (2020) 136734. 

Qingchuan Chou, Anders Nielsen, Tobias K. Andersen, Fenjuan Hu, Weiyu Chen,Xiaolin Zhang1*, Te Cao, Leyi Ni, Erik Jeppesen, Dennis Trolle. 2021. Assessing Impacts of Changes in External Nutrient Loadings on a Temperate Chinese Drinking Water Reservoir. Fronties in Environmental Science, 2021.632778, 1-11. 

Qingchuan Chou, Anders Nielsen, Tobias K Andersen, Fenjuan Hu, Weiyu Chen, Te Cao, Leyi Ni, Martin S?ndergaard, Liselotte S Johansson, Erik Jeppesen, Dennis Trolle. 2021. The impacts of extreme climate on summer-stratified temperate lakes: Lake S?holm, Denmark, as an example. Hydrobiologia,  

Zihao Wen, Yiwei Ma, Hao Wang, Yu Cao, Changbo Yuan, Wenjing Ren, Leyi Ni, Qinghua Cai1, Wen Xiao, Hui Fu, Te Cao* and Xiaolin Zhang*. 2021. Water Level Regulation for Eco-social Services Under Climate Change in Erhai Lake Over the Past 68 years in China. Fronties in Environmental Science, 2021.697694, 1-12. 

Changbo Yuan, Xiaohu Bai, Tianshun Zhu, Zihao Wen, Te Cao, Xiaolin Zhang* and Leyi Ni. 2021. Long-Term Effects of the Harvesting of Trapa natans on Local Water Quality and Aquatic Macrophyte Community in Lake Erhai, China. Fronties in Environmental Science, 2021.706746, 1-9. 

Wenjing Ren, Yiqian Yao, Zhonghai Zhang, Yu Cao, Changbo Yuan, Hao Wang, Qing Chuan Chou, Leyi Ni, Xiaolin Zhang* and Te Cao*. 2021. Changes of Periphyton Abundance and Biomass Driven by Factors Specific to Flooding Inflow in a River Inlet Area in Erhai Lake, China. Fronties in Environmental Science, 2021.680718, 1-10. 

Hao Wang, Hui Fu, Zihao Wen, Changbo Yuan, Xiaolin Zhang*, Leyi Ni, Te Cao. 2021. Seasonal patterns of taxonomic and functional beta diversity in submerged macrophytes at a fine scale. Ecology and Evolution, 2021; 00:1–10. 

Wenjing Ren, Zihao Wen, Yu Cao, Hao Wang, Changbo Yuan, Xiaolin Zhang, Leyi Ni, Ping Xie, Te Cao*, Kuanyi Li, Erik Jeppesen. 2021. Cascading effects of benthic fish impede reinstatement of clear water conditions in lakes: A mesocosm study. Journal of Environmental Management, 301 (2022) 11398: 1-10. 

Zihao Wen, Hao Wang, Zhonghai Zhang, Yu Cao, Yiqian Yao, Xiaoyu Gao, Yuqing Tian, Haojie Su, Leyi Ni, Wen Xiao, Qinghua Cai, Xiaolin Zhang *, Te Cao *. 2021. Depth distribution of three submerged macrophytes under water level fluctuations in a large plateau lake. Aquatic Botany. 176 (2022) 103451: 1-10.