Theory and Technology Development of Freshwater Aquaculture in China
Since the 1950s, IHB scientists and engineers have devoted to the theoretic and technological studies of freshwater aquaculture. A series of theories and technologies on the genetic breeding of aquaculture species, artificial propagation, high-yield technology used in ponds and lakes, disease control, healthy and high efficient aquaculture patterns, integrated rice-fish farming systems, and modern ecological fishery have been developed.
Collaborating with a bunch of domestic scientists in China, IHB researchers made significant theoretic and technological breakthroughs in the artificial reproduction of “four major domestic carps” in China. They systematically conducted biological research on the bluntnose black bream, also called Wuchang fish (Megalobrama amblycephala), and successfully realized their artificial reproduction and aquaculture.
IHB researchers successively bred several novel allogynogenetic gibel carp varieties, including the allogynogenetic gibel carp, high dorsal allogynogenetic gibel carp, allogynogenetic gibel carp “CAS Ⅲ” and “CAS V”. In 1985, IHB’s project “Applied research of allogynogenetic gibel carp” was awarded the second prize of National S&T Progress Award. In 1995, the project “Developmental mechanism of natural gynogenesis in gibel carps” was awarded the second prize of National Natural Science Award. In 2011, the project “Studies on genetic basis of unique dual modes of unisexual and sexual reproduction in polyploid Carassius auratus gibelio”, was granted with the second prize of National Natural Science Award.
In 1961, the book Cultivation of the Chinese Freshwater Fishes, written by IHB scientists, was published. This book is the bible of freshwater aquaculture in China. The second and third editions of the book were published in 1973 and 1992, respectively.
China is the world’s largest aquaculture country. Its output of aquaculture, most of which is freshwater aquaculture, accounts for 63% of the world total. IHB’s project “Study on the mechanism of fish bioenergetics” was awarded the third prize of the 1998 National Natural Science Award. The project “The comprehensive technical research of high fishery production in small macrophyte lakes” and the project “Fisheries resource management and profitable fisheries models in mid-lower Yangtze lakes” were awarded the second prizes of the 1997 and 2005 National S&T Progress Award, respectively.
In 2018, IHB led the compilation of the book Aquaculture in China: Success Stories and Modern Trends which was published by the world famous publisher Wiley Blackwell in English. This is the first comprehensive book that systematically introduces the theory and technology of aquaculture in China, and leads the world’s technology and practice of freshwater aquaculture.